Production of drilling mud additives

Drilling mud

Drilling mud may lose its properties when in contact with different layers of the earth, so the drilling mud should be evaluated at specific intervals and its lost properties should be compensated.

As a result, some chemicals and minerals are added to drilling fluid to reduce viscosity, improve mechanical and rheological properties of mud, improve cake filter properties, increase well stability, prevent formation degradation, reduce jelly properties, control colloidal behavior and prevent lost circulation. The choice of these additives depends on factors such as rock strength, fracture rate, depth, gaseous material, drilling method and mineralogical composition of the rocks. The importance of these factors has caused the production of drilling mud additives to face many complexities.

The general purpose of using drilling mud additives is filtration control, pH control, mud viscosity control, increasing the weight of drilling fluids, controlling fluid waste into the formation, protecting pipes and other chemicals that are effective in improving drilling mud performance.

In this paper, first the types of drilling mud additives are studied, then gilsonite and barite, which are widely used in the production of drilling mud additives, are examined. Gilsonite powder is a drilling mud additives which is used to control the viscosity of the mud, loss circulation and creating filter cake. The second additive in drilling mud that has been studied is barite, which plays an essential role in controlling pressure and increasing the density of drilling mud.

Drilling mud

Types of drilling mud additives

Drilling mud additives are divided into several categories. The production of each drilling mud additive is done with different formulations according to the type of drilling and the structure of the formation.

  1. Weighting materials for drilling mud: Weighting materials include calcium chloride, salt, barite and calcium carbonate.
  2. Drilling mud viscosity enhancers: Increasing the viscosity increases the strength of the mud for raising the drilling stumps to the ground. Bentonite is one of the most widely used materials in this sector.
  3. 3) PH control substances: In most muds pH is kept between 9.5 and 10.5. The penetration of H2S in the drilling mud acidifies the environment and reduces the pH and increases the corrosion. For this purpose, the pH is raised even above 10. Caustic soda and calcium hydroxide are chemicals used to regulate the pH of mud
  4. Lost circulation control: In the drilling process, when high permeability sandstones or rift formations are encountered, some mud penetrates into the formation and causes lost circulation. At the same time, the solid particles inside the mud adhere to the surface of the formation and prevent further wastage of the mud, creating an edge called a cake filter on the surface of the formation. Materials such as bentonite, polymers, gilosonate powder and mica are used to control lost circulation in drilling fluids.

Gilsonite

 Gilsonite is a glossy black substance composed of various high molecular weight hydrocarbons and has a wide variety of colors, hardness, specific gravity and volatile constituents. From the accumulation of sediments of plant-derived compounds among the rock layers and the effects of microbial activity, pressure and heat over time, coal is formed. This coal is later changed to semi-bitumen. As the process continues, the charcoal hardens and turns into Gilsonite.

Gilsonite has several uses, including the manufacture of oil and gas pipe coatings, as an additive for drilling mud, the manufacture of industrial bitumen, the use of drilling cement, the extraction of heavy metals and its use in road construction.

Application of Gilsonite in drilling mud

In drilling oil and gas wells, Gilsonite is mainly used for cementing wells and reducing the weight of drilling mud. The most important role of Gilsonite in drilling is to prevent wastage of drilling fluid and its loss into the formation. Gilsonite must be combined with other materials such as mica to be effective in controlling waste.

If this material is used in cementing oil and gas wells, it will significantly reduce the weight of drilling mud. Gilsonite can reduce the weight of drilling fluid if added in low concentrations to the drilling mud. By increasing the concentration of this substance, the amount of weight loss in mud decreases significantly.

Drilling mud

Use of barite in drilling pressure control

In deep oil and gas drilling by rotary method and in areas where gas or liquid pressure is high, a heavy mud is needed to control these pressures. This heavy fluid must rotate to prevent the lost circulation and control the pressure. Barite is one of the materials used in the production of drilling mud additives to control pressure. Under these conditions, barite powder is added to a normal solution of water and clay. Barite is widely used due to its weighting property, chemical neutrality and relatively cheap price.

Barite powder is added to the drilling mud to increase the density of the mud …

WAREHOUSE RACKING TIPS AND HOW TO HANDLE

In managing the warehouse space efficiently and maximizing storage, warehouse managers use racking as an ideal method. As a foundational infrastructure component, warehouse racking facilitates seamless operation and optimizes warehouse organization. This allows the resources to be managed effectively and the warehouse to remain organized. While this is the bright side of it, there are challenges. Many managers do not know the best warehouse racking tips that could help them even do racking better. Besides, every year, there are cases of warehouse racking safety incidents that leave people hurt and sometimes dead. In such incidents, the companies also suffer financial and reputational loss depending on the degree of the incident. This article looks at the best warehouse racking tips, common safety issues related to warehouse racking, and how to go about warehouse safety concerns.

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Best warehouse racking tips

While there are many tips and guidelines on warehouse racking, some are more effective than others. In fact, they work to realize better results than the rest. All the same, different tips may work better for different industrial processed and the products being handled. Below are some of the best warehouse racking tips that have worked for most industrial processes;

i. Implement a strong warehouse racking system

Before indulging in the nitty-gritty of warehouse racking, you must understand that how well your racking system will work greatly depends on how stable the system is. The system should be sturdy enough to accommodate the weight of the products that will be subjected to it. According to Tips for Warehouse Transportation Safety, ShelfSpace, the best way to combat the threat of tired shelves not being able to handle the sheer weight, use bottom shelves more often.

ii. Improve accessibility and the safety of workers by using modular edge racking;

Many warehouse managers in Thailand have found modular edge racking, a variant of pallet racking, to be an effective and efficient strategy for improving warehouse accessibility and worker safety. To enhance such a system, you can use frame protectors, steel mesh racks, deck panels, anti-collapse systems, and extra supports.

iii. Bear in mind the load

One of the best practices to observe while choosing the right warehouse racking to use for an industrial process involves considering the load that will be placed on the rack. There are three classes of racking systems, and the choice you make depends on the load. Select Light-duty racking for loads not exceeding 660 pounds, Medium-duty pallet racking for load weighing 660 to 1,320 pounds, or Heavy-duty pallet if your load capacity exceeds 1,320 pounds.

iv. Use moveable racking systems to value and save unused space

If you want a pallet racking system that will be handy in valuing unused space, you surely would appreciate the moveable racking systems. Whether you use a forklift or crane to move goods, moveable racking systems will be helpful. Besides, these racking systems have no limitation regarding the size or the bulk of the warehouse goods.

v. Consider application-specific requirements as you choose your pallet racking system;

According to @FoodSafetyMag, the best advice warehouse managers that handle dry good storerooms can apply is to rotate, rotate, and rotate. Foodstuffs can definitely come out of the container worse than they got in but can never come out better. To manage this, rotation is required whereby the goods that first came in should be the first to go out (FIFO). Your racking systems must accommodate this. Be specific with your needs as you choose the racking system.

Common warehouse racking and how to handle them

Having known the best tips and practices for warehouse racking systems, it’s time to familiarize yourself with the safety concerns related to warehouse racking. Below are the five typical causative agents of safety incidents in warehouse racking systems and how to go about them;

a) Forklift collision damage

Pallet racking systems are meant to handle heavy and bulky loads, and this poses a safety risk. In many cases, forklifts have been reported to have collided and caused major damages, and claimed lives in some cases. According to the OSHA Weekly Catastrophe Report, every end month has an average of two warehouse workers crushed by the heavy forklift machinery across the world (Thailand included). To counter this, employees need to remain vigilant in the warehouse and be on the watch out for this powerful machine. Besides, frame end guards, rack bollards, and drive-in-floor channels can be used to cut down the damage should a forklift collision occur.

b) Improper use

Another major cause of safety incidents in warehouse racking systems incidents is the improper use of warehouse racking systems. Often, the workers do not know how to use the warehouse racking components, leading to a series of safety issues. They either use the wrong equipment or overload the system or improperly …